8th grade social studies
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  1. Cabinet. A group of people who are in charge of a department of the U.S. government and give advice to presidents. Under President George Washington, there were five cabinet positions: secretary of the Treasury, secretary of War, secretary of State (to deal with other countries), Attorney General (to enforce the law), and Postmaster General (to run the post office).

  2. Political parties. Groups of people who get together and agree on what they will do if they are elected. They support candidates for office from that party. Today the two biggest parties are the Democrats and the Republicans.

  3. Alexander Hamilton. He was born in the West Indies, then moved to the United States and became George Washington's most important aide during the American Revolution. He was the first secretary of the Treasury, helped start the National Bank, and got the government to pay off all its debts. He was the head of the Federalist Party, the first political party in the United States. He died while fighting a duel with Aaron Burr.

  4. bonds. Pieces of printed paper that promise to pay money to the person after a certain length of time. They were given to anyone who lent money to the government, and to soldiers who fought with George Washington in the American Revolution.

  5. federal. The national or central government, which makes laws and collects taxes for the whole country. For example, when you pay your federal income tax, you are helping to pay the president's salary and for the military.

  6. Federalist Party. This political party supported a very strong central government for the country. The Federalists were mostly rich men.

  7. Thomas Jefferson. The third president of the United States. He wrote the Declaration of Independence and he was considered a great president. He was the head of the Democratic-Republican Party, which believed in a weaker central government than the Federalists. It was supported by farmers and other losew-income people. Jefferson owned more than 200 slaves and was constantly in debt. When he died, his slaves and other property were sold.

  8. Whiskey Rebellion of 1794. A protest against high taxes. Farmers refused to pay the government's taxes on selling corn liquor. President George Washington sent the militia and stopped the rebellion without a fight. Later, everyone involved in the rebellion was pardoned and allowed to go free.

  9. Alien Act. It was passed in 1798, when John Adams was president. The Alien Act was designed to keep immigrants from voting. It made them wait 14 years to become citizens, instead of the 5 years they had waited before. The Alien Act ended when Jefferson became president.

  10. Sedition Act. This act, which passed in 1798, made it illegal for newspapers to criticize the government. If they did, the newspaper editor was put in jail. This act also ended when Thomas Jefferson became president.